APRIL 9th, 1951
Florida Sheriff Shoots Two Black Defendants After Supreme Court Overturns Convictions
On April 9, 1951, the United States Supreme Court overturned the convictions and death sentences of Samuel Shepherd and Walter Irvin, two black men wrongly convicted of the rape of a white woman in Groveland, Florida. The Court held that the men were entitled to new trials because black people had been excluded from serving on their juries.
NAACP attorney Thurgood Marshall represented Mr. Shepherd and Mr. Irvin in appealing their death sentences. The case originally had four black defendants, but one of the young men was lynched by a mob prior to trial, and the youngest defendant, at just 16 years old, had been convicted and sentenced to life imprisonment. In Sheriff Willis McCall’s custody while awaiting their first trial, the three defendants had been brutally beaten and tortured in the Lake County Jail. Following the reversal of Shepherd’s and Irvin’s convictions, Sheriff McCall volunteered to personally transport the men back to the Lake County Jail from Florida State Prison for retrial.
En route to the jail, on November 6, 1951, McCall shot Shepherd and Irvin. McCall later claimed that Shepherd and Irvin, handcuffed to each other in the back of the police car, attempted to attack him when he stopped on a deserted road to check the vehicle’s tires. McCall shot both men.
Mr. Shepherd died instantly from his wounds. Deputy James Yates, who was summoned to the scene, observed that Mr. Irvin was wounded but still alive, and shot him again in the neck. Yates and McCall then ripped McCall’s clothing and struck a blow to his head to substantiate his self defense claims. After multiple people arrived at the scene, someone observed that Mr. Irvin was miraculously still alive, and he ultimately survived his injuries. Though Mr. Irvin told the NAACP and the FBI that McCall had shot him and Mr. Shepherd without cause, a coroner’s jury found that McCall had acted in self defense and cleared his name. McCall remained Lake County Sheriff until 1972, when he was indicted for the murder of another black prisoner.
Mr. Irvin was retried for rape, again convicted and sentenced to death. His sentence was commuted to life imprisonment by the Florida governor in 1955, and Mr. Irvin was released on parole in 1968. In 2012, FBI investigative documents surfaced showing that medical examinations of the alleged rape victim in 1949 revealed no evidence of assault. Surviving family members of the Groveland Four have since launched efforts to secure exonerations and an apology from the State of Florida.
“If you tremble with indignation at every injustice then you are a comrade of mine.”
― Ernesto Che Guevara
Therefore, since Christ suffered in his body, arm yourselves also with the same attitude, because he who has suffered in his body is done with sin. As a result, he does not live the rest of his earthly life for evil human desires, but rather for the will of God. For you have spent enough time in the past doing what pagans choose to do—living in debauchery, lust, drunkenness, orgies, carousing and detestable idolatry. They think it strange that you do not plunge with them into the same flood of dissipation, and they heap abuse on you. But they will have to give account to him who is ready to judge the living and the dead. For this is the reason the gospel was preached even to those who are now dead, so that they might be judged according to men in regard to the body, but live according to God in regard to the spirit.
1 Peter 4:1–6
“The ends you serve that are selfish will take you no further than yourself but the ends you serve that are for all, in common, will take you into eternity.”
― Marcus Garvey
After spending a week on the road speaking and engaging other leaders about our current state of existence as church leaders and advocates for Prop 47 and housing for formerly incarcerated populous I have come to the conclusion that It’s sin to deprive a human being of the necessities of life. I doubly find it horrific that our churches are not relevant in this work. Here are some of the sinful issues ahead of us to combat and boycott.
- Educational and Vocational Barriers As a group, previously incarcerated persons have low levels of education and face many barriers in regards to their employability. The Urban Institute reports the following information on soon-to-bereleased inmates from state prisons: 70% are high school dropouts 50% are functionally illiterate 19% have less than eight years of education The pre-incarceration employment rates of offenders are lower than the employment rates of the general U.S. population
- Mental and Physical Health Issues Previously incarcerated persons struggle with a wide range of mental and physical health problems. A 2003 Urban Institute paper reported the following statistics on male previously incarcerated persons: 75% have substance abuse problems 21% report having a disability that limits their ability to work 18% have Hepatitis C 16% report mental illness 12% report a vision or hearing problem 7% have a tuberculosis infection 4% show symptoms of post-traumatic stress syndrome related to incarceration 2-3% are HIV-positive or have AIDS
- Reclassification for Prop 47 needs funding
- Voter restoration of rights
I for one will give my life to advocate and educate the system and the oppressed about the goodness of our Lord and what He desires of us as a people to drive positive change in a sinful legislative body of government and policy makers in America. I will partner with ICUC- PICO and a coalition of churches to be a safe environment that desire to recycle this populous of people into humanity again as productive family, community oriented people.
Be Prepared by Recognizing that God Will Bring Justice at the Judgment
But they will have to give account to him who is ready to judge the living and the dead. (emphasis mine).
1 Peter 4:5
Here in this passage, Peter encourages the believers who were suffering abuse by saying that ultimately the world will give an account to God for their sins, which in this context includes their persecution of believers. The reality of the world’s perceived prosperity and sometimes persecution of the righteous, has confused and frustrated many including some biblical writers. Look at what Asaph said:
But as for me, my feet had almost slipped; I had nearly lost my foothold. For I envied thearrogant when I saw the prosperity of the wicked. They have no struggles; their bodies are healthy and strong. They are free from the burdens common to man; they are not plagued by human ills. Therefore pride is their necklace; they clothe themselves with violence. From their callous hearts comes iniquity; the evil conceits of their minds know no limits. They scoff, and speak with malice; in their arrogance they threaten oppression…
Surely in vain have I kept my heart pure; in vain have I washed my hands in innocence. All day long I have been plagued; I have been punished every morning. If I had said, “I will speak thus,” I would have betrayed your children. When I tried to understand all this, it was oppressive to me till I entered the sanctuary of God; then I understood their final destiny.Surely you place them on slippery ground; you cast them down to ruin (emphasis mine).
Psalms 73: 13–18
Asaph said this reality plagued him. He couldn’t understand it. It made him question if he should remain holy. Was it really worth practicing godliness when those who did not prospered? No doubt, these believers were also being tempted to doubt God and possibly compromise to be like the world.
Peter encourages them with the same truth that comforted Asaph. It may seem like the world is carefree as they enjoy sin and mock the righteous, but the ground they stand on is slippery(Ps 73:18). It’s not stable, and their final destiny is ruin. This is the same truth that Peter comforts the believers with. He says in 1 Peter 4:5: “But they will have to give account to himwho is ready to judge the living and the dead” (emphasis mine). Not only will God judge them for their sin, but he will specifically judge them for their abuse of the righteous. Their mocking, their cursing, their murder will all be held accountable by God. This should comfort the believer in a world where it looks like there is no justice, where things are not right.
This concept of God’s righteous judgment should enable believers to be prepared to suffer for righteousness’ sake. In fact, Paul encourages believers who are suffering with the same truth in Romans 12:19-21,
Do not take revenge, my friends, but leave room for God’s wrath, for it is written: “It is mineto avenge; I will repay,” says the Lord. On the contrary: “If your enemy is hungry, feed him; if he is thirsty, give him something to drink. In doing this, you will heap burning coals on his head.” Do not be overcome by evil, but overcome evil with good (emphasis mine).
Paul says the believer can return good for evil in part because God will take revenge. He is the one who will repay the world with judgment for their mistreatment of believers. This may not always happen during one’s life time, but it surely will happen at the judgment, if they will not repent.
It is for this reason that the believer can serve and bless because revenge is not the lot of the believer. It is reserved for God. In fact Paul, also, encouraged the suffering saints in Thessalonica with God’s justice. Look at what he says:
Therefore, among God’s churches we boast about your perseverance and faith in all the persecutions and trials you are enduring. All this is evidence that God’s judgment is right, and as a result you will be counted worthy of the kingdom of God, for which you are suffering. God is just: He will pay back trouble to those who trouble you (emphasis mine).
2 Thessalonians 1:4–6
Many times, believers are tempted to get angry at God. They were mistreated; they were stepped over for a promotion; they were slandered. Many times they want to get mad at God and mad at people. The believer must understand this: God does not pay his accounts on our time schedule. Ultimately, this will take place at the judgment.
Listen to the story about this farm community:
The story is told of a farmer in a Midwestern state who had a strong disdain for “religious” things. As he plowed his field on Sunday morning, he would shake his fist at the church people who passed by on their way to worship. October came and the farmer had his finest crop ever––the best in the entire county. When the harvest was complete, he placed an advertisement in the local paper which belittled the Christians for their faith in God. Near the end of his diatribe he wrote, “Faith in God must not mean much if someone like me can prosper.” The response from the Christians in the community was quiet and polite. In the next edition of the town paper, a small ad appeared. It read simply, “God doesn’t always settle His accounts in October.”
Our God may also choose to not settle accounts until the judgment. Let us not be discouraged now, but live in hope. Our God will make all things right.
DECEMBER 31st, 1952
First Year in 70 Years With No Reported Lynchings in the United States
On December 31, 1952, for the first time in seventy years, a full year passed with no recorded incidents of lynching. Defined as open, non-judicial murders carried out by mobs, lynching befell people of many backgrounds in the United States but was a frequent tool of racial terror used against black Americans to enforce and maintain white supremacy.
Prior to 1881, reliable lynching statistics were not recorded. But the Chicago Tribune, the NAACP, and the Tuskegee Institute began keeping independent records of lynchings as early as 1882. As of 1952, these authorities reported that 4726 persons had been lynched in the United States over the prior seventy years and 3431 of them were African American. During some years in American history it was not unusual for all lynching victims to be African American.
Lynching in the United States was most common in the later decades of the nineteenth century and early decades of the twentieth century, during post-reconstruction efforts to re-establish a racial hierarchy that subordinated and oppressed black people. Before the lynching-free year of 1952, annual lynching statistics were exhibiting significant reductions. Between 1943 and 1951 there were twenty-one lynchings reported nationwide, compared to 597 between 1913 and 1922. After 1952, the number of lynching incidents recorded annually continued to be zero or very low and the tracking of lynchings officially ended in 1968.
Though the diminished frequency of lynching signaled by the 1952 report was encouraging, the Tuskegee Institute warned that year that “other patterns of violence” were emerging, replacing lynchings with legalized acts of racialized inhumanity like executions, as well as more anonymous acts of violence such as bombings, arson, and beatings. Similarly, a 1953 editorial in the Times Daily of Florence, Alabama, noted that, though the decline in lynching was good news, the proliferation of anti-civil rights bombings demonstrated the South’s continued need for “education in human relations.”
MAY 17th, 1954
United States Supreme Court Declared Racial Segregation of Public Schools Unconstitutional
The Supreme Court’s landmark decision in Brown v. Board of Education grew out of several cases challenging racial segregation in school districts across America, filed as part of the NAACP Legal Defense Fund’s strategy to bar the practice nationwide. Because the lawsuits addressed the same legal questions, the United States Supreme Court consolidated them under the name of a case in which lead plaintiff, Oliver Brown, sued the Topeka, Kansas, Board of Education on behalf of his daughter, Linda.
A black public school student in Topeka, Kansas, Linda Brown lived blocks from an elementary school but was forced to travel over an hour to reach the all-black school she was designated to attend. When she tried to enroll in the closer neighborhood school, which was all-white, the Board of Education denied her request.
In the United States Supreme Court, NAACP lawyer Thurgood Marshall argued that segregated schools were harmful and left black children with feelings of inferiority. On May 17, 1954, the Court unanimously ruled that segregation in public education is unconstitutional, overturning the “separate but equal” doctrine established by Plessy v. Ferguson in 1896. Relying on evidence of segregated facilities’ negative psychological impact on black children, Chief Justice Earl Warren declared that “in the field of public education the doctrine of ‘separate but equal’ has no place. Separate educational facilities are inherently unequal.”
Be Prepared by Focusing on the Gospel and the Faithful Before Us
For this is the reason the gospel was preached even to those who are now dead, so that they might be judged according to men in regard to the body, but live according to God in regard to the spirit (emphasis mine).
1 Peter 4:6
Remember the reason that believers can suffer for righteousness is because of their focus on the gospel and remembering the faithful saints that were persecuted before us. It is the gospel that should enable believers to suffer for righteousness as it has many martyrs throughout the history of the church. In fact, this has been one of his main themes and encouragements throughout the epistle. Remember what he said in chapter 1:
Who have been chosen according to the foreknowledge of God the Father, through the sanctifying work of the Spirit, for obedience to Jesus Christ and sprinkling by his blood: Grace and peace be yours in abundance. Praise be to the God and Father of our Lord JesusChrist! In his great mercy he has given us new birth into a living hope through theresurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead, and into an inheritance that can never perish, spoil or fade—kept in heaven for you, who through faith are shielded by God’s power until the coming of the salvation that is ready to be revealed in the last time (emphasis mine).
1 Peter 1:2–5
He starts off the book comforting these believers with election, being chosen by God for salvation. He says they have experienced the new birth and have an inheritance being reserved in heaven. This is a tremendous comfort for the believer in persecution. But it is also astrength that enables the believer to suffer and even die.
It is the gospel that allows the believer to take up his cross and die for Christ. He knows that heis going to heaven. This truth has enabled many believers from the beginning of the church to give their lives for Christ, since they knew they would immediately be translated into the presence of God and eventually be resurrected. Therefore, in this verse Peter comforts this church with the gospel and the testimony of previous saints who had been persecuted and now were dead. He says:
For this is the reason the gospel was preached even to those who are now dead, so that they might be judged according to men in regard to the body, but live according to God in regard to the spirit.
1 Peter 4:6
This is a debated text, but Peter seems to be saying it is because of God’s coming judgment that the gospel was preached to previous believers who are now dead. Those who responded to the gospel were judged according men in the body, which means they suffered and possibly even died for the faith. However, they now live according to God in regard to the spirit. This means that they are now in heaven, living as spirits worshiping God. We probably get a picture of this in Hebrews 12:22-23:
But you have come to Mount Zion, to the heavenly Jerusalem, the city of the living God. You have come to thousands upon thousands of angels in joyful assembly, to the church of the firstborn, whose names are written in heaven. You have come to God, the judge of all men,to the spirits of righteous men made perfect (emphasis mine).
The writer of Hebrews speaks of not only angels in the city of God, but of the church and the spirits of the righteous men made perfect. These believers now worship God in spirit and await the rapture of our human bodies.
Peter writes to these scattered believers and calls them take comfort in the gospel and the faithful, persecuted saints before them. If they died, they would go to heaven, just as the many suffering saints before them who are now living in the spirit. To be absent from the body is to be present with the Lord. Understanding this reality will help prepare us to suffer. The best is yet to come.
We are living in a time where persecution towards the church is increasing daily even in Western nations. How can the believer be prepared to suffer unjustly?
- Be prepared by remembering that Christ suffered.
- Be prepared by having the attitude of Christ—as a soldier willing to die.
- Be prepared by recognizing the believer’s deliverance from sin in Christ’s death.
- Be prepared by recognizing we no longer follow the ways of this world.
- Be prepared by expecting abuse and suffering from the world.
- Be prepared by remembering God will bring justice at the judgment.
- Be prepared by a focus on the gospel and the faithful before us.