~Re-Entry Programs Effectiveness; Women and Reentry

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Accomplishments to Date

The Department of Health and Human Services(HHS), in conjunction with other Reentry Council agencies and community partners, sponsored a two-day conference, “Meeting the Reentry Needs of Women: Policies, Programs, and Practices.”
The conference brought together researchers, practitioners, federal employees, and advocates to discuss how federal, state, and local systems can work to improve reentry outcomes for women.

In 2012 and 2013 the Department of Labor (DOL) funded grants to provide employment and support services to females involved in the criminal justice system using a comprehensive case management strategy. In 2012 nine grants were awarded—seven serving adults and two serving youth. , since 2013 eight grants serving adults were awarded.

Like males, females involved with the criminal justice system face a host of challenges when they leave jail or prison and return to their communities. However, the current systems do not always address the specific challenges faced by women, which, if unaddressed,
can contribute to women’s potential risk for further involvement in the criminal justice system. For example,
while many females involved with the criminal justice system struggle with both substance abuse and mental health problems—often linked to their history of physical or sexual abuse beginning in childhood and extending into adulthood—most state and local reentry programs
lack a significant trauma-informed behavioral health component. And while a primary consideration for many justice-involved women who are mothers is to determine when and how to successfully reestablish a relationship with their children when they leave prison, most correctional systems do not focus on this important aspect of reentry. These and many other factors point to the need to better identify effective strategies to help women overcome these challenges as they transition to their communities.

In honor of Annual Reentry Reflections month 2014 The Office on Returning Citizen Affairs is facilitating a Gender Specific Reentry Conference with a focus on understanding the differences in reintegration for men and women. ORCA is committed to providing quality service to help create a seamless transition back into the community. We believe that the experience of incarceration and reentry is different for women than it is for men and therefore the needs of female Returning Citizens are unique and separate from those of their male counterparts. Even though women are the fast growing group of people becoming incarcerated, they are only 10% of the prison population. In an effort to ensure that
women who are returning from incarceration are not neglected in the services that the District provides ORCA has launched the Female Reentry Initiative.

One of the goals of this initiative is to inform the public about how crime and incarceration affects women and how the reentry process for women needs to be specifically designed with gender responsive needs in mind. The Gender Specific Reentry Conference will meet the mission of the agencies in our network system by providing theoretical approaches and first hand insight on how to improve and increase the quality and range of support services for women. The Office on Returning Citizen Affairs hopes that you will join us as we explore this meaningful topic
and explore strategies to address it.
When: November 4, 2014 at 10:00 A.M. – 3:00 P.M.
Where: Judiciary Square 441 4th St. N.W. – Conference Room 1107
Please R.S.V.P NO LATER THAN Friday, October 14, 2014
If you need further information, contact Lashonia Etheridge-Bey, Staff Assistant, ORCA
202-715-7670, lashonia.etheridge@dc.gov

How are reentry women similar to people that I’ve worked with and studied? My research participants domestic violence survivors and
people leaving “gangs— have also gone through a difficult life transition that involves leaving and reentry.These findings cut across groups:
Histories include neglect, victimization, exposure to drugs/sex/violence. Populations tend to have higher levels of complex developmental trauma, along with co-occurring conditions like mental illness and substance abuse. All three groups are going through “reentry.” Many are entering newunfamiliar contexts for the first time (e.g., school, employment, new expectations, unfamiliar roles)
Similar developmental opportunities in all three groups:
Lack self-esteem and a sense of self-efficacy.
Trust is an issue, insufficient communication skills.
Inadequately developed self-regulation, self-care, positive coping.
Difficulties with interpersonal attachments and intimacy.
Reality testing –need to develop realistic appraisal, planning, and problem-solving skills.
Difficulties-discerning the difference between love versus “use-based”relationships, may not expect to be treated respectfully.
Lack of adequate or “good enough” parents or parental role models.
Positive social support networks need to be developed.
Not “ready” to take on the practical demands of everyday adult life.
High levels of poverty, lack of education, job skills, and job experience.
Women in all three groups have experienced them selves socially and economically marginalized deemed insignificant
Women are aware of relationship challenges, e.g., family reunification; gender roles in intimate relationships but they are ill-prepared to resolve these during reentry. Social support systems in general are lacking, as is practical support. Many obstacles exist; these are real, not abstract. Reentry women experience a general lack of clarity /actionable plan to take on the overwhelming task of “moving on” and “moving forward”.
Reentry Council agencies have convened seven listening sessions across the country to hear from service providers and justice-involved women on the challenges and successes of returning to their communities and families. These listening sessions will provide input for materials being developed for service providers and women reentering the community from prisons and jails.
DOJ’s National Institute of Corrections (NIC) has developed a Gender Responsive Policy & Practice Assessment (GRPPA) model to assist jails, prisons, and community corrections to: (a) evaluate whether current policy, practice, and programs address the risk, needs, and strengths of women involved in the criminal justice system, and (b) develop strategies to improve both system and women’s outcomes.
The Federal Bureau of Prisons (BOP) is piloting a program developed specifically for women to help them identify, prioritize, and address their reentry needs throughout their period of incarceration. The challenges associated with reentry from jail are daunting—large in scale and
complex in task. Each year, U.S. jails process an estimated 12 million admissions and releases. That translates into 34,000 people released from jails each day and 230,000 released each week. In three weeks, jails have contact with as many people as prisons do in an entire year, presenting numerous opportunities for intervention.
According to BJS, there are 3,365 local jails around the country, processing an estimated 12 million admissions and releases each year.  These 12 million admissions and releases represent about 9 million unique individuals, most incarcerated for brief periods of time, often only a few hours or days. As a result of this rapid turnover, the number of admissions is more than 16 times the 766,010 held in jail at midyear 2006.2
Unlike prisoners in state and federal institutions who are virtually all convicted and sentenced, more than 60 percent of the nation’s jail inmates have not been convicted and are awaiting arraignment or trial.
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